Friday, December 18, 2009

Miri City Council ~ “Sunday Is No Plastic Bag Day” Campaign

Besides Penang and Selangor which will implement "Free Plastic Day" beginning year 2010, we also have Miri City Council to thank for their effort in this area since 6 September 2009. Hopefully others will follow suit. It will not be easy to immediately change people's habit, however this is not a mission impossible. Keep up your good work and BRAVO TO ALL!

Sources :

The Miri City Council through its Miri Local Agenda 21 is glad to announce that the “Sunday Is No Plastic Bag Day” campaign will kick-off this Sunday, 6 September 2009.

The Objectives of Campaign:

* To create awareness among the public on the dangers of expansive use of plastic
* To reduce or minimize the plastic usage starting from shopping complexes by using recyclable shopping bags
* To encourage public from various levels to participate in environmental programme

It was noticed that during last Sunday launching day (30/08/2009) some Supermarkets have taken the initiative to start the campaign on the same day and had received favourable and positive responses.

Shoppers are reminded to “bring their own shopping bags” because participating Hypermarket and Supermarket / Departmental Stores will not be issuing plastic bag for free on Sunday. However, should the shoppers still require a plastic bag, they can purchase one for RM0.20 and all these charges collected will be donated to charitable organizations or NGOs by the individual outlets. As an alternative, some Hypermarket / Supermarket will also be selling “Ecobags” at a discount price provided the “Ecobags” was filled with purchased items on Sunday.

It was indeed a welcoming move by the participating outlets, and to date, the following stores / Supermarkets have agreed and confirmed participation.

* Boulevard Hypermarket & Departmental Store
* Giant Supermarket
* E-mart Supermarket
* Servay Supermarket
* Sin Liang Supermarket
* Nam Leong Departmental Store
* Pasar Edar Ekonomi
* Super Save Departmental Store
* Ng Sian Hap Trading
* G.K Supermarket

The Council on its parts will continue to intensify its publicity campaign through RTM, local media, banner and intended to print publicity posters to be distributed to all Local Agenda 21 Stakeholders, like government depts., schools, private sectors, NGOs, residents committee and kampong.

The Council has also decided to look into action plan to extend the campaign to other business outlets including hawkers stalls and markets.

听嘞,环保军们!有好消息 ~ 檳“無塑袋日”增至3天 !

这可是一个盼了多久的好消息, 许多国家都已在实行了,我国却还在观望,终於盼到有州政府愿意付诸于行动了。纵然是知易行难,但有意愿就是一个好的开始。恭喜槟州政府和州民,希望大家珍惜这个因缘,协力助展这个愿力,逐步逐步建设一个绿色天堂给各位的下一代。先在此恭喜各位的下一代吧!

还有那一个州属呀? 再找找看,回头向大家报告 !





















再来一个好消息 ~ 雪州2010年开始每逢週六無塑袋日

感谢雪州政府,亦付诸于行动,开始替我们的下一代减少破坏性的垃圾 !受惠者将包括从事塑胶业的下一代哦!愿大家为了改善和我们息息相关的大环境,眼光放远放宽, 并帮助州政府来帮助我们自身。










Monday, December 14, 2009

IMPACTS of Climate Change on MALAYSIA...

Source: The Star dated 14th December, 2009

Title : Presence at Copenhagen climate summit not merely diplomatic

Malaysia’s participation at the Copenhagen Climate Change Summit is not merely a diplomatic commitment but a mission to determine the survival of the world in the next century.

Although the country is not in danger of sinking as a result of rising sea level due to global warming, like the Maldives, it will still feel the repercussions from greenhouse gas emissions.

According to a report from the Drainage and Irrigation Department, the country’s coastal line has narrowed by about 40m due to erosion at 33 locations.

There were also drastic climate changes like unpredictable rain and thunderstorms in the capital, as well as drought in some states.

Also, the Fourth Assessment Report by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that 1,200 sq km of the country’s coastline would be under water due to sea-level rise if no measures were taken to tackle global warming.

It was also reported that major towns in the region had been affected by global warming and that this had caused drought episodes in parts of Malaysia.

The IPCC study noted that Malaysia would experience a temperature rise of between 0.6°C and 4.5°C by 2060, which explained the need for Malaysia to be at the summit.

According to Associate Prof Dr Kamarulnizam Abdullah of Univer­siti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia’s presence is not merely diplomatic.

We are here to send a bigger message, that developing countries (and poor countries) will be affected if the issue on global warming continues,” he said.

Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak will join more than 100 world leaders, including US President Barack Obama, in the final stages of the summit to thrash out a global deal, including how much industrialised countries are willing to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

The leaders will discuss the creation of an international green fund to provide developing countries with financial and technical resources to create a carbon-free economy.

The fund is crucial, particularly for poor nations forced to use cheap technology to develop their countries,” Dr Kamarulnizam said.

What is certain, is that the Copenhagen summit is expected to tackle the “weaknesses” of the Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997, due to an absence of a regulatory body to ensure the agreement signed by 184 countries, is implemented.

As a result, the objective of the protocol was not met. The United States did not sign the Kyoto Protocol.

Prof Dr Suhaimi Abdul Talib, from Universiti Teknologi Mara, said global warming was a serious issue because of its effects on developing countries, like Malaysia.

“The well-being of our environment will assure the well-being of our economy,” said Prof Suhaimi, adding that the Copenhagen summit would be a venue for the world community to unite and collectively tackle problems of global warming.

In that context, he said Malaysia’s role would include voicing the hope of poor countries. — Bernama

MALAYSIA pledges for CO2 reductions

Today's STAR Papers featured our PM's commitment to reduce Cos emissions at the Copenhagen Climate Change Summit.
(Source :

M’sia to offer C02 reductions

KUALA LUMPUR: Malaysia will offer “credible” cuts in its emissions of carbon dioxide at the Copenhagen Climate Change Summit in an effort to halt global warming, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak said.

The Prime Minister will be among more than 110 world leaders who will meet in Copenhagen next week to try and clinch a deal on deeper emissions cuts by rich nations, steps by developing nations to cut their carbon pollution and finance to help the poor adapt to climate change.

“We are willing to offer our commitment. I am not just going to call on the developed world. I am going to commit Malaysia to very credible cuts which means we have to spend, which we will do,” Najib said yesterday, adding that the cuts were still being worked on.

The United Nations has said a full, legal treaty to expand or replace the existing Kyoto Protocol is out of reach at the talks, after two years of troubled negotiations, and is likely to be agreed some time in 2010.

UN data shows Malaysia’s carbon emissions in 2006 stood at 187 million tones or 7.2 tonnes from each Malaysian. Although that figure is far less than neighbouring Indonesia, which is the world’s third largest emitter with 2.3 billion tonnes or 10 tonnes per capita, according to Indonesian government data, Najib said all nations must contribute.

“It has to be predicated on the fundamental principles of the Kyoto protocol and the UN Framework on Climate Convention,“ he said.

“Amongst which the most important being the common but differentiated responsibilities that the developed world must deliver against larger cuts in terms of carbon emissions and that the developing world should be assisted particularly in terms of financial assistance, capacity building and technology.”

Najib said that despite the current economic turmoil, which has seen the United States and Europe plunge into huge budget deficits, the fight against climate change had to take priority.

In the longer term, the United Nations estimates the fight against global warming is likely to cost US$300bil a year from 2020, largely to help developing nations adapt to impacts such as droughts, floods and heat waves.

“If we really talking about it, we must walk the talk (on funding). Otherwise we are just going to face a very uncertain future and the effects will be quite catastrophic,” Najib said. — Reuters

Sunday, December 6, 2009




资料来源: 星洲日報


* 頭條新聞
* 國際

2009-12-06 14:23



國際山區綜合開發中心於今年8月發佈的衛星組圖顯示,受到全球暖化影響,因喜瑪拉雅山冰川融化而開始形成的Imja Tsho湖,在過去50年來面積不斷擴大,至今被地質科學家指為世界上最具威脅性的冰湖之一。(圖:法新社)














Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Malaysian Youths are speaking up for the Planet

A big KUDOS to our very own brand of young warriors in green armour.... way to go guys! May your efforts be rewarded soon and we can all live in a cleaner and safer environment!!

Source of article: The Sunday Star dated 30th November, 2009.
Link :

Malaysian youth is fighting for justice – justice for the climate, that is.

ON Oct 24, more than 100 Malaysian youths appeared seemingly out of nowhere at the Suria KLCC and Pavilion shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur and started dancing and chanting: “Oh, it’s hot in here. There’s too much carbon in the atmosphere!”, to the amusement of thousands of tourists and shoppers. They did this for about a minute, then quickly dispersed just as suddenly as they had arrived.

What was that all about? It was the MyCJN-350 Dance for the Planet event, held to mark International Day of Climate Action. The youths are members of the Malaysian Youth Climate Justice Network (MyCJN), a group that is determined to have its say on the well-being of the planet that they will inherit.

MyCJN was formed in June by five young people: Tam Kar Lye Tam, Lalitha Muthusamy, Khairun Nisa Mohamed Zabidi, Emily Chan Li Yu, and Adrian Yeo. Rather than an actual organisation, MyCJN is a network of environmentally concerned youths. While some of the founders remain actively involved in MyCJN activities, they are neither the movement’s “committee” nor leaders (in fact, only two of them are in Malaysia at this present time).

The group thrives on being a decentralised network of people who come together during projects, and relies heavily on the Internet to spread their message and get members. A good measure of how large a “membership” they currently have is their Facebook page – they currently have more than 1,100 members, and the number is growing each day.

MyCJN is not an organisation per se where one applies to be a member. It is more a network of like-minded people, and is meant to be a platform for young people to engage each other,” said Gan Pei Ling, 22, a student of Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.

Environmental management graduate Leong Shen Nyan, 24, concurred. “It is a very interest-based network of people who are just interested in doing their part for the environment. If you want to run an environment project, all you have to do is announce it on the network to ask for help in getting manpower and resources.”

These projects can be anything, ranging from Gan’s October initiative of writing letters to Cabinet members urging them to act on climate change proposal, to the Dance for the Planet event and in the case of Chironjit Das (better known as Ron), flying to Bangkok to attend a United Nations conference on climate change.

“The purpose of the Bangkok trip was to connect with other like-minded youth from around the world, as well as the Malaysian delegation. We also wanted to find out what Malaysia’s role and stand on climate change is,” said Ron, 22.

MyCJN also helped organise a series of Conversations on Climate in August to provoke thoughts on the issue, and the Environmental Sustainability Leadership Symposium 2009 that guided 39 youths on green leadership.


MyCJN is part of the Global Youth Climate Justice movement, which has a six-month action plan leading up to the UN climate meeting in Copenhagen next week. One of the MyCJN founding member, Adrian Yeo, is already in Copenhagen to aid youth initiatives and plan a conference for youth.

Gan and nine others will also be heading for Copenhagen as part of the Global Youth Climate Justice Network, through funding from the US Embassy and WWF.

Yeo is convinced that the youth can make a difference in efforts to heal the climate. “Our presence at the conference is of utmost importance. We need to show that we know the science, and that we are directly affected by the deal that world leaders are signing on to. They need to be reminded that all of us are someone’s son or daughter, and keep in mind the sustainability of our future,” he said via e-mail.

But will the elders in charge of the country and the world listen to a bunch of kids dancing and chanting in the streets? Well, considering the fact that MyCJN is only about six months old, it has got its voice heard.

“The Selangor Government recently invited us to attend the draft meeting for the Selangor Environmental Draft,” said Ron.

They were not taken seriously at the beginning, said Ron. “When we met the Malaysian delegation, they were very dismissive of us initially. You could see it in their faces. But in the end, many of them were impressed with us, as we knew our facts and were serious about what we were doing.”

While tangible change is still elusive at this stage, the progress that MyCJN has had so far bodes well for the organisation.

“We are building the foundation and getting the word out that we are a group of young people who wants to be heard,” said Leong.

“The whole idea of MyCJN is to empower Malaysian youths to take action. Our focus is to ensure the youth has a voice because if we don’t do something now, we will be the ones suffering the consequences in future,” Ron added.

Well, if the flash dance mob on Oct 24 is anything to go by, they certainly have gained attention. Sure, it’s just a lot of noise right now but give these young people some time. The future is theirs after all.

> For more on MyCJN: info@mycjn. org,, mycjn, and (facebook) MYCJN – Malaysian Youth Climate Justice Network.

Thursday, November 26, 2009

FOOD ANIMALS : The neglected holocaust

Here's a thought-provoking article on the ethical aspects of meat eating from our very own columnist - HIMANSHU BHATT - featured in The SUN on 19th November, 2009.

FOOD ANIMALS: The neglected holocaust

RALPH Waldo Emerson once commented that one reason a person can enjoy meat is that the dining table is concealed "a graceful distance of miles" from the slaughterhouse. He was right.

Most of us are so conditioned to a diet consisting of meat that we ignore the process involved in getting it to our plates. As we chomp merrily away at our steak, our eyes and taste-buds are shielded from the violence that is making graveyards of our stomachs.

For the sight of systematic breeding and slaughter of millions of animals would be like a vision of Hell. Live chickens dipped in scalding water, lambs cramped in small crates, cows with cracked spines hanging on conveyor belts; these are but some of the ruthless conditions millions of innocent animals endure everyday because we create the demand for them to undergo such lives.

Now, in an effort to stir some awareness towards the plight of food animals, a group of concerned people, moved by the debauchery behind the food and livestock industries, have put together an unusual crusade – a Meatless Day campaign – where individuals are encouraged to pledge to be vegetarian for one day on Nov 25.

Considering that most people eat meat, this campaign may seem bizarre or way against the odds. But the initiative is propelled by a deeper profound thrust, one that appeals to a nation’s collective conscience and reasoning.

It is the brute reality of our natural universe that to survive, one life form must devour another; that to persevere physically, one must ingest and absorb the organic remains of the other. Certainly, if one lives in the wild, the need for survival would demand that one partakes in the struggle for survival. But how many of us actually live in the wild, genuinely taking part in the food chain of nature? Few, if any.

The fact of our modern lifestyle is this – the animals we eat are bred specially for us. Each year, trillions of mammals and many more birds are butchered for food all across the world, many in unimaginable circumstances. Yet, few of us make any conscious connection between the bloody treatment these animals get and the meat products that have become part of our diet.

Most animals bred for the table are hardly allowed outdoors. In many abattoirs, calves spend their whole lives chained in wooden boxes that are so small that they cannot move or turn around, and are made to lie in their own excrement, forced to inhale the ammonia gases instead of the fresh air outdoors. Pigs in factory farms receive a battery of injections soon after birth and many have their teeth pulled out with pliers. No pain relief is given, not even when their tails are cut off.

There have been reports that livestock, poultry and fish are often force-fed with massive doses of antibiotics and growth hormones to be bred and raised for maximising profits.

An American cattleman, Herb Silverman, once narrated the experience of castrating a calf to John Robbins, the author of Diet for a New America: "I hate castrating them. It’s really horrible. After you put a ring on its scrotum the calf will lie down and kick and wring its tail for half an hour or more, before the scrotum finally goes numb. It’s obviously in agony. Then it takes about a month before its balls fall off. You can do it faster with a special kind of pliers, but I can’t bear to use those because I can’t take how they carry on."

The savagery of beasts is not for us. The human race has transcended other life-forms in intellectual perception and, possibly, in philosophical understanding. It is precisely in view of this that, in Mahatma Gandhi’s words, "we err in copying the lower world when we are superior to it."

Evolved in their culture, in their collective wisdom, humans, of all living beings, have developed an understanding of pain and suffering to be sympathetic towards the plight and existence of other creatures within the environment.

And the abundant varieties of vegetables, fruit, grains and nuts that the Earth has supplied us with can easily provide, under ordinary circumstances, for the nutritional needs of a person in a humane and ecologically benign way.

Yet, it baffles the mind how such an intelligent, progressive race as ours can continue to sit idle, allowing billions of sentient beings to be killed regularly, making death pits of our stomachs, when there is a more non-violent alternative?

Indeed, the systematic slaughter of trillions of lives over the thousands of years has been the single most neglected holocaust to be perpetrated in the history of human civilisation.

Himanshu, a lifelong vegetarian, is theSun’s Penang bureau chief.

BLOGGER'S NOTE: Kudos to all all who campaign on animal rights! Not only it is unethical and unhealthy to consume meat, it also help rid more than 80% of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere! So, BE VEG, GO GREEN AND SAVE THE PLANET!

Source of article:


The urgent message to stop eating meat to help SOS Plant Earth is spreading across continents.... just after India's red alert to cut down on beef consumption, the Health Secretary of the United Kingdom is now urging Britons to do the same....

Read on for the latest update:

'Stop eating meat to save the planet from global warming', Britons warned( By Daniel Martin ... MAIL ONLINE dated 25/11/2009)

Cutting a sausage a day from the average British diet is necessary to save the planet, scientists claim.

Their controversial report, which partly blames meat-eaters for climate change, was backed by Environment Secretary Hilary Benn's department last night.

The scientists called for a 30 per cent reduction in the number of farm animals bred

The average meat intake in men is 970g a week and in women 550g a week. A 30 per cent reduction in men is equivalent to seven 40g sausages, two 130g chicken breasts, four 70g lamb chops or 12 bacon rashers of 25g.
Such a reduction would also bring significant health benefits, the scientists said, by reducing premature deaths from heart disease in Britain by 17 per cent - equivalent to 18,000 lives a year.

They claimed food production from animals was a major source of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, and that by 2030, rising demand for meat was expected to drive up livestock production globally by 85 per cent from 2000 levels, leading to substantial emission increases.

The authors, led by Dr Alan Dangour, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and Dr Sharon Friel, from the Australian National University in Canberra, wrote in the medical journal The Lancet that improvements in agricultural efficiency were 'necessary but not sufficient to meet targets to reduce emissions'.

Although the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said it would not comment on the 30 per cent figure, it released a statement to say: 'There are lots of ways people can cut their carbon footprint and impact on the environment - and reducing the the amount of meat in our diets is one option.'

But the backing of vegetarian Mr Benn's department, which is specifically responsible for promoting farming, drew strong criticism from farmers and scientists who said cutting meat consumption was not the way to combat climate change.

Peter Kendall, president of the National Farmers' Union, said: 'Farmers will be angry that yet again we have an ill-informed and simplistic report which appears to completely misunderstand agriculture's emissions and its role in climate change.

'This report advocates a 30 per cent reduction in livestock numbers in countries that have the most efficient production systems and hence the lowest emissions.

'What we need to do is look at doing things more efficiently rather than simply cutting livestock numbers.

'The car industry is praised for producing more efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles rather than being told to cut production.

'Other governments that value their livestock production are looking at exciting and innovative ways to reduce agriculture's environmental impacts while understanding the need to produce more food for an expanding global population.'

Professor Ian Crute, chief scientist at the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, which advises the meat industry, said: 'A large fall in meat eating or turning vegetarian is not the solution to climate change - it would make only a marginal difference to greenhouse gas emissions.

'The challenge is to produce meat more sustainably - which is already happening in countries such as the UK, which is leading global thinking in this area.'

Read more:

The supported report / Lancet medical journal by the team of British and Australian scientists can be read here

Wednesday, November 25, 2009

MELTING ICE CAPS to damage port cities

Hi all,

If sea levels continue to rise due to the melting of icecaps, as many as 136 port cities around the globe will suffer major financial damages. Read about this from a recent report by the WWF :

GENEVA (AFP) – Flooding in the world's major port cities caused by melting icecaps could cause up to 28 trillion dollars (18 trillion euros) in damage in 2050, environmental group WWF said in a report Monday.

"If the temperature rises between 0.5 and 2 degrees (Celsius) between now and 2050, it's possible that the sea level would progress by half a metre (nearly two feet) bringing major financial damage," Ulrike Saul, in charge of climate and energy for WWF Switzerland, told AFP.

Such a rise in the sea level would cause up to 28 trillion dollars in damage in the world's 136 biggest port cities, according to the study in which German insurance company Allianz took part.

Saul warned: "If the current climate protection policies do not change, it is more probable that we will register a rise of 2 degrees in 2050."

The northeast coast of the United States could see a rise in sea levels 15 centimetres higher than the world average, the study said.

INDIA offers NO-BEEF climate solution

"Nothing will benefit human health or increase the chances for survival of life on earth as the evolution to a vegetarain diet."

India's Environment Minister suggests the world adopt vegetarianism if it is to tackle the greenhouse emission problem, writes Matt Wade in Delhi.

AS THE international community struggles to come up with a climate change deal, India's Environment Minister, Jairam Ramesh, has come up with a solution: don't eat beef.

He challenged the world to follow the example of millions in his country and eschew beef in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Mr Ramesh, a vegetarian, said: ''The single most important measure that can be taken in the world to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to stop eating beef.''
He has strong support in his campaign against beef-eating from R. K. Pachauri, the leading Indian climate change scientist who headed the UN's influential panel on climate change.

''I'm happy that the minister is agreeing with me on this,'' Dr Pachauri said

''If you look at the beef cycle today, you first clear forests, which increases emissions, then you feed cattle all kinds of food grain, which is energy intensive, and then you kill and refrigerate these animals, and then they are transported long distances. Then you buy it and refrigerate it. If you count all the emissions associated with this entire cycle, it is huge.''

Last year, a UN Food and Agriculture Organisation study found that meat production accounted for about a fifth of all greenhouse gas emissions.

Mr Ramesh's comments come days before the Copenhagen summit on climate change, where the positions of India and China will be crucial to any international deal.

India has argued consistently that the main responsibility for reducing greenhouse gases must be taken by wealthy Western countries with high per capita emissions. It has resisted pressure to adopt binding targets for limiting its own greenhouse emissions. Indian officials say any climate change treaty must be equitable.

Dr Pachauri said the Indian Government was well within its rights to expect more from rich countries. ''The developed world has just not lived up to its obligations or responsibilities,'' he said.

''The concentration of these gases in the atmosphere is entirely the result of 150 years of industrialisation and so-called economic development in the developed world, as a result of which we have the problem we have today.''

But he also said India needed to do more to project what it was doing domestically to mitigate emissions.

India's position on climate change is liable to come under fresh scrutiny this week when Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visits Washington for talks with US President Barack Obama.

The Age

Monday, November 23, 2009

CLIMATE CHANGE AFTER KYOTO 1997.... better or worse???

Good morning... well at least it is still a good morning for now....but for how long?
With the way things are going, there won't be too many 'good mornings' soon. and here's why....

An informative yet alarming article from today's ASSOCIATED PRESS focusing on the worsening impacts of climate change since the international agreement,KYOTO PROTOCOL was initiated in 1997 to address rising greenhouse gas emissions, shows that the warming impacts have more than doubled since then...

Question : Will the coming Copenhagen Climate Change Summit in December see the consensus of an ultimate deal to reduce carbon emissions by the particpating nations?

DATED : 22th Nov, 2009

Since the 1997 international accord to fight global warming, climate change has worsened and accelerated — beyond some of the grimmest of warnings made back then.

As the world has talked for a dozen years about what to do next, new ship passages opened through the once frozen summer sea ice of the Arctic. In Greenland and Antarctica, ice sheets have lost trillions of tons of ice. Mountain glaciers in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa are shrinking faster than before.

And it's not just the frozen parts of the world that have felt the heat in the dozen years leading up to next month's climate summit in Copenhagen:

_The world's oceans have risen by about an inch and a half.

_Droughts and wildfires have turned more severe worldwide, from the U.S. West to Australia to the Sahel desert of North Africa.

_Species now in trouble because of changing climate include, not just the lumbering polar bear which has become a symbol of global warming, but also fragile butterflies, colorful frogs and entire stands of North American pine forests.

Temperatures over the past 12 years are 0.4 of a degree warmer than the dozen years leading up to 1997.

Even the gloomiest climate models back in the 1990s didn't forecast results quite this bad so fast.

"The latest science is telling us we are in more trouble than we thought," said Janos Pasztor, climate adviser to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon.

And here's why: Since an agreement to reduce greenhouse gas pollution was signed in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the level of carbon dioxide in the air has increased 6.5 percent. Officials from across the world will convene in Copenhagen next month to seek a follow-up pact, one that President Barack Obama says "has immediate operational effect ... an important step forward in the effort to rally the world around a solution."

The last effort didn't quite get the anticipated results.

From 1997 to 2008, world carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have increased 31 percent; U.S. emissions of this greenhouse gas rose 3.7 percent. Emissions from China, now the biggest producer of this pollution, have more than doubled in that time period. When the U.S. Senate balked at the accord and President George W. Bush withdrew from it, that meant that the top three carbon polluters — the U.S., China and India — were not part of the pact's emission reductions. Developing countries were not covered by the Kyoto Protocol and that is a major issue in Copenhagen.

And the effects of greenhouse gases are more powerful and happening sooner than predicted, scientists said.

"Back in 1997, the impacts (of climate change) were underestimated; the rate of change has been faster," said Virginia Burkett, chief scientist for global change research at the U.S. Geological Survey.

That last part alarms former Vice President Al Gore, who helped broker a last-minute deal in Kyoto.

"By far the most serious differences that we've had is an acceleration of the crisis itself," Gore said in an interview this month with The Associated Press.

In 1997, global warming was an issue for climate scientists, environmentalists and policy wonks. Now biologists, lawyers, economists, engineers, insurance analysts, risk managers, disaster professionals, commodity traders, nutritionists, ethicists and even psychologists are working on global warming.

"We've come from a time in 1997 where this was some abstract problem working its way around scientific circles to now when the problem is in everyone's face," said Andrew Weaver, a University of Victoria climate scientist.

The changes in the last 12 years that have the scientists most alarmed are happening in the Arctic with melting summer sea ice and around the world with the loss of key land-based ice masses. It's all happening far faster than predicted.

Back in 1997 "nobody in their wildest expectations," would have forecast the dramatic sudden loss of summer sea ice in the Arctic that started about five years ago, Weaver said. From 1993 to 1997, sea ice would shrink on average in the summer to about 2.7 million square miles. The average for the last five years is less than 2 million square miles. What's been lost is the size of Alaska.

Antarctica had a slight increase in sea ice, mostly because of the cooling effect of the ozone hole, according to the British Antarctic Survey. At the same time, large chunks of ice shelves — adding up to the size of Delaware — came off the Antarctic peninsula.

While melting Arctic ocean ice doesn't raise sea levels, the melting of giant land-based ice sheets and glaciers that drain into the seas do. Those are shrinking dramatically at both poles.

Measurements show that since 2000, Greenland has lost more than 1.5 trillion tons of ice, while Antarctica has lost about 1 trillion tons since 2002, according to two scientific studies published this fall. In multiple reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports, scientists didn't anticipate ice sheet loss in Antarctica, Weaver said. And the rate of those losses is accelerating, so that Greenland's ice sheets are melting twice as fast now as they were just seven years ago, increasing sea level rise.

Worldwide glaciers are shrinking three times faster than in the 1970s and the average glacier has lost 25 feet of ice since 1997, said Michael Zemp, a researcher at World Glacier Monitoring Service at the University of Zurich.

"Glaciers are a good climate indicator," Zemp said. "What we see is an accelerated loss of ice."

Also, permafrost — the frozen northern ground that oil pipelines are built upon and which traps the potent greenhouse gas methane — is thawing at an alarming rate, Burkett said.

Another new post-1997 impact of global warming has scientists very concerned. The oceans are getting more acidic because more of the carbon dioxide in the air is being absorbed into the water. That causes acidification, an issue that didn't even merit a name until the past few years.

More acidic water harms coral, oysters and plankton and ultimately threatens the ocean food chain, biologists say.

In 1997, "there was no interest in plants and animals" and how they are hampered by climate change, said Stanford University biologist Terry Root. Now scientists are talking about which species can be saved from extinction and which are goners. The polar bear became the first species put on the federal list of threatened species and the small rabbit-like American pika may be joining it.

More than 37 million acres of Canadian and U.S. pine forests have been damaged by beetles that don't die in warmer winters. And in the U.S. West, the average number of acres burned per fire has more than doubled.

The Colorado River reservoirs, major water suppliers for the U.S. West, were nearly full in 1999, but by 2007 half the water was gone after the region endured the worst multiyear drought in 100 years of record-keeping.

Insurance losses and blackouts have soared and experts say global warming is partly to blame. The number of major U.S. weather-related blackouts from 2004-2008 were more than seven times higher than from 1993-1997, said Evan Mills, a staff scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.

"The message on the science is that we know a lot more than we did in 1997 and it's all negative," said Eileen Claussen, president of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. "Things are much worse than the models predicted."


For more information,please visit the following :

U.S. government's 2009 report on climate change impacts:

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 report on changes already observed:

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change:

Thursday, November 19, 2009

Here's the latest updates on the 'negotiating positions of some big greenhouse gas emitters' before the coming december Copenhagen Climate Change Meeting.
(Source: )

FACTBOX - Climate negotiating positions of top emitters
(The STAR, dated 19/11/2009)

REUTERS - Russia toughened on Wednesday its goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions, saying it would target a 25 percent reduction from 1990 levels by 2020 compared with a 10-15 percent pledge previously.

Following are the negotiating positions of the top greenhouse gas emitters before a U.N. meeting in Copenhagen in December due to agree a new global climate deal.

1) CHINA (annual emissions of greenhouse gases: 6.8 billion tonnes, 5.5 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - President Hu Jintao promised that China would cut its carbon dioxide emissions per dollar of economic output by a "notable margin" by 2020 compared with 2005. The "carbon intensity" goal is the first measurable curb on national emissions in China. Hu reiterated a promise that China would try to raise the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to 15 percent by 2020.

* Demands - China wants developed nations to cut their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 percent from 1990 levels by 2020 and to promise far more aid and green technology.

2) UNITED STATES (6.4 billion tonnes, 21.2 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - President Barack Obama wants to cut U.S. emissions back to 1990 levels by 2020, a 17 percent cut from 2005 levels, and to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

* Obama says he wants an accord in Copenhagen that covers all the issues and that has "immediate operational effect."

Legislation to cut emissions by 20 percent from 2005 levels had been approved by a Senate Committee but people few think it can become law before the Copenhagen talks.

* Finance - The United States says a "dramatic increase" is needed in funds to help developing nations.

* Demands - "We cannot meet this challenge unless all the largest emitters of greenhouse gas pollution act together," Obama said.

3) EUROPEAN UNION (5.03 billion tonnes, 10.2 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - EU leaders agreed in December 2008 to cut emissions by 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and by 30 percent if other developed nations follow suit.

* Finance - EU leaders have agreed that developing nations will need about 100 billion euros ($147 billion) a year by 2020 to help them curb emissions and adapt to changes such as floods or heatwaves. As an advance payment, they suggest 5-7 billion a year between 2010 and 2012.

* Demands - The EU wants developing nations to curb the rise of their emissions by 15 to 30 percent below a trajectory of "business as usual" by 2020.

4) RUSSIA (1.7 billion tonnes, 11.9 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - Cut greenhouse gases by 22-25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020. That means a rise from now -- emissions were 34 percent below 1990 levels in 2007.

5) INDIA (1.4 billion tonnes, 1.2 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - India is prepared to quantify the amount of greenhouse gas emissions it could cut with domestic actions, but will not accept internationally binding targets, Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said. India has said its per capita emissions will never rise to match those of developed nations.

* Demands - Like China, India wants rich nations to cut emissions by at least 40 percent by 2020. But Ramesh signalled room to compromise: "It's a negotiation. We've given a number of 40 percent but one has to be realistic."

6) JAPAN (1.4 billion tonnes, 11.0 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - Cut Japan's emissions by 25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 if Copenhagen agrees an ambitious deal.

* Finance - Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama told the United Nations that Tokyo would also step up aid.

7) SOUTH KOREA (142 million tonnes, 2.9 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - Cut emissions by 30 percent below "business as usual" levels by 2020, which is equivalent to a 4 percent cut from 2005 levels.

8) BRAZIL (111 million tonnes, 0.6 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - Will cut its emissions by between 36.1 percent and 38.9 percent from projected 2020 levels, representing a 20 percent cut below 2005 levels.

9) INDONESIA (100 million tonnes, 0.4 tonnes per capita)

* Emissions - Aims to cut emissions by 26 percent by 2020 below "business as usual" levels.

Taking CO2 from deforestation into account, Indonesia is the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases.

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

美 国 富 翁 从 不 用 纸 巾 ~ 有 感 于 布 朗 的 手 帕

十几年前偶而看到一则有关用一年纸巾须要砍掉多少棵树的报告,非常的震撼。之后就决定改用手帕。意外的收获是 :

  • 省下不少冤枉钱。虽然也没因此发达,但家里的垃圾确实少了许多。 由于鼻子敏感的毛病,当年用的纸巾量挺吓人的。很难於想象当年有多少棵大树就这样死在我的鼻子下。

  • 因鼻子敏感,一接触灰尘就打喷嚏打得惊天动地,头疼脸肿,搞到玉体欠佳,形象欠奉,苦不堪言。用了手帕后情况意外的改善了。后期则因勤於进山林跑步而治好纠缠多年的鼻敏感,让我对大自然更多了一份感恩和尊重。


这是一位懂得生活素质的富翁。一般人很容易受商业社会的价值观所影响,误以商场吹捧的物质来评估自己的价值,而忽略了简单永续性的生活其实是一种高素质,利人利己的生活方式。曾有朋友人批评我茹素是极端;拿自己的蓝子买东西是乡下人的作风; 用手帕?唉哟,怎么那么“lao beh呀”(过时)?让我啼笑皆非。可喜的是现在越来越多人茹素,自备购物袋等等。目前愿意摒弃方便而采用手帕的人数还不理想,可我现在蛮乐观的,感觉到人们醒觉的速度越来越快,爱惜大自然的心越来越多,可喜可贺!

手巾儿呀手巾儿,打起了精神准备好嘞,你重入江湖的日子不远矣 !


美 国 富 翁 从 不 用 纸 巾 ~ 有 感 于 布 朗 的 手 帕

来源:人民网-《人民日报》 (责任编辑:赵燕萍)



   以经济条件而论,布朗绝不是买不起汽车、交不起电费。自从1974年创办从事全球环境问题分析的美国地球政策研究所以来,他就远离了现代的生活方式。在 华盛顿,他住的是一个单身公寓,不是买不起大房子,而是觉得没有必要。他认为好生活的标准是,让人感觉满足、幸福而安全。他用一种对自己近乎“苛刻”的生 活方式诠释着一个简单而执着的追求:不想用一次性的纸巾把森林变成垃圾,不想让自己的奢侈和浪费额外加重地球的负担,因为“地球已经不堪重负”。

   在现实生活中,若非出于经济原因,像布朗那样“生活在30年前”的事例还是相当少见的。经济的发展、物质的丰富、快节奏的生活,几乎让人无法拒绝现代生 活的方便和舒适。于是,汽车越来越多,一次性用品纷纷进入了人们的生活。餐馆几乎都用一次性筷子,商店里几乎找不到手帕,很多人口袋里备着纸巾,去哪里买 东西都用不着准备购物袋———有塑料袋白送。细想起来,纸巾代替手帕,我们每人每年平均8.5千克的生活用纸,还有越来越多的汽车,似乎也就是近十来年的 事情。

  地球不堪重负,这是人所共知的事实:水资源危机日益严重,全球森林面积每年减少1300多万公顷,但垃圾却以超过8%的速度在 增加;中国目前城市垃圾的累计堆存量已经达到70亿吨,而且还在以每年10%以上的幅度增长……尽管如此,在很多人看来,这又与自己的生活方式有什么直接 的关系呢?偌大的城市,哪里容不下“我的”几张废纸?偌大的地球,哪里又在乎“我”多用一升水、多用几包纸巾呢?

  在生活中,没有法律 规定你一个月只能用多少电、多少吨水,纸巾只能用几张,一次性筷子可以用几双。是节约使用、自觉抵制不环保的行为,还是只要负担得起、想用多少就用多少, 这在很大程度上完全取决于个人的环保意识。记得几年前采访一个关于室内空气污染的学术讨论会,有一位美国著名大学的教授临时取消了行程。他的理由很简单: 这次有关室内污染的研讨会上居然不提倡禁烟!

  我们经常外出就餐,知道一次性的筷子很不环保;我们也经常外出购物,很清楚一次性塑料袋 的危害……可是,又有多少人能够像那位教授一样,勇于对我们不应该接受的事情说“不”呢?我们感动于“布朗的手帕”,并不是要将他的这种生活方式绝对化, 而是感动于他的精神。在资源日益短缺的今天,如果每个“我”都拿出一点儿布朗的精神,能省则省,举众人之力,建设节约型的社会,并不是一件难事。


Tuesday, November 17, 2009


Source :,28804,1929071_1929070_1939675,00.html?xid=rss-health

ON THE COPENHAGEN AGENDA : Saving Forests may still work
(By : Bryan Walsh)

This month, the journal Nature Geoscience published a study calculating that deforestation is responsible for about 15% of global carbon emissions, down from earlier estimates of 20% or more. Most of the world's deforestation is concentrated in a few tropical nations, like Brazil and Indonesia where trees are disappearing fast — when these trees die or are burned, they release into the atmosphere all the carbon they've sucked up while they were alive. According to the Nature Geoscience study, the problem of deforestation is becoming a lot less dire than previously thought.

Unfortunately, the study's findings couldn't be further from the truth. The authors' recalculation had less to do with a reduction in deforestation than with an unexpected increase in emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Indeed trees are still being lost at an alarming rate, at about 13 million hectares per year as of 2005, according to the U.N. Exacerbating the deforestation problem is that there is no global system in place to discourage it. (The global carbon market created by the Kyoto Protocol, by contrast, offers carbon cap and trading as a way to begin reducing carbon emissions from energy or transportation.) "Forests are worth more dead than alive," says Russell Mittermeier, the president of the green group Conservation International.
(Read "Is There Any Hope for Agreement at Copenhagen?")

There is some hope that valuation will shift, as the world stumbles toward the U.N. climate change summit in Copenhagen next month. Negotiators are trying to include a system to protect forests — called Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) — in the international treaty that is meant to be hammered out at the summit. Broadly speaking, REDD would allow countries to trade on the carbon value of their forests. If successful, it could be a relatively inexpensive way to quickly reduce deforestation, cut emissions and preserve the habitats of some of the most endangered species on the planet. "Forests are a part of the climate problem, so they need to be part of the solution," says Kevin Conrad, the lead climate negotiator for Papua New Guinea and a major advocate of the REDD process.

Here's how it would work in detail: developing nations would accept some kind of limit on deforestation rates, and in exchange for preserving those forests, they would receive compensation from developed countries, which would then be able to use the carbon they're saving to meet their own carbon caps. It's as simple as that, a recognition that rich nations will have to provide developing countries an economic rationale to stop cutting down trees. The benefits would be global (reducing climate change) and local (helping conservation efforts). Loss of habitat is the No. 1 cause of extinction, and the tropical rain forests that hold the most carbon are also home to the most diverse collection of species. "REDD is a new, exciting opportunity in conservation," says Brett Jenks, the CEO of RARE Conservation.

But it's not an easy opportunity. Tropical forests are vast, so it might be expensive and time-consuming to accurately track which trees are being cut down and which are being saved, although better satellite technology is making that easier. If REDD is implemented on a project-by-project basis, rather than across entire nations, there's a real risk of leakage; deforestation would be stopped in one area, only to bleed somewhere else, and carbon emissions wouldn't be reduced. Activists for indigenous groups — the native people who actually live in tropical forests — worry that they won't benefit financially from the REDD process, or even be forced to move off their land. If the preserved trees are burned or cut down later, the carbon would be lost. And it doesn't help that countries with high rates of deforestation aren't exactly well governed, which could make the implementation of REDD on the ground a real headache. "The cost is not going to be cheap to do," says Nigel Sizer, RARE's vice president for Pacific and Asia operations. "There is legal uncertainty at every level of this."

The upcoming Copenhagen summit is meant to clear up that uncertainty, and there is real hope that REDD could be a bright spot in a meeting that might otherwise be considered a failure. While the larger negotiations remain deadlocked between developed and developing countries over future carbon-emission cuts, both sides have an interest — environmentally and financially — in reducing forest loss. There's already progress being made: on Nov. 12 provincial governors from Indonesia, Laos and the Philippines agreed to back REDD. In Brazil, new statistics show the country has cut deforestation rates in half, signs that the government is finally taking the problem seriously. The South American nation stands to be a major beneficiary of REDD — the head of the Brazilian Carbon Markets Association estimated that the country could earn $16 billion a year from REDD.

For that to happen, some version of REDD must become a part of a new global climate deal — and, of course, there must actually be a new global carbon deal. Although preventing deforestation won't be the solution to climate change, it's a necessary start.

Blogger's note : Here's another top article on "THE RAPE OF THE RAINFOREST...and the man behind it"
Link :

Saturday, November 14, 2009


Hi all,

Long time no hear from me..sorry as I have been rather tied up with work and all.
Was going through some online news on the environment and came across this very encouraging article from the Borneo Bulletin. Not only do we have kindergarten children taking up arms against global warming, now we have leaders in the religious sectors voicing their concern too.

Take a listen and see what the Imams in Brunei has to say.....

Source :

By Azlan Othman

The current climate change that threatens our existence which mankind must confront decisively was brought to the fore by the religious authorities yesterday.
Highlighting the cost of climate change, Imams in a Friday sermon said Ummah should be more aware of how to protect the environment and not to resort to destruct and pollute it.

The environment we live in is fragile and needs constant care instead of the heaps of abuse we, man pile on it.

The Imams stressed that Allah dislikes those who bring catastrophe to the world led by irresponsible people who needlessly chop down trees causing industrial pollution, widespread burning of fossil fuels, emission of greenhouse gases, encroachment, fish bombing, oil spillage and indiscriminate dumping of industrial waste.

The drastic rise in sea pollution through plastic dumping has reached an alarming level where marine life is threatened. Studies have shown that 30,000 marine animals were suffocated, trapped while entangled or stuck in fishing equipment that finally killed them.

At least 77 metric tonnes of plastic-based waste have been dumped annually by the shipping industry, while commercial fishing has left 135 million kilogrammes of plastic-based fishing gear and dumped 24 millions of plastic waste to the sea.

This means that the sea, which balances the global climate and protects mankind from change, has become a dumping ground and also experiencing a rise in earth temperature due to the modernisation process.

If such destruction to the earth continues, it would set off the alarm and bring changes to the world where the world temperature would rise from 1.1 degree Celsius to 6.4 degrees Celsius between 1990 to 2100.

If we allow this to happen, the world would become too hot within a century and pose danger and will be deemed unsafe for humans. Global climate change relates to many catastrophes like melting ice in the Antarctic, rise in sea levels, big floods and the disappearance of smaller islands.

Tropical countries would also experience extraordinary heavy rainfall with dry soil due to rapid water absorption. Plants and livestock will also be affected, threatening food security in some countries.

Those residing near the coastline and the supporting infrastructure like buildings, houses, roads, ports and treatment plants would also be affected. They might also experience floods or big storms.

On flat land, coastline would erode. Climate change would also affect the natural ecosystem, food supply, agriculture, transportation, and water and energy usage.

To tackle climate change, Brunei through the Marine Department has implemented the international maritime convention and continues to review regulations on the disposal of rubbish from ships and storage of oil from modified tankers.

We must note that humans perpetrate every catastrophe. Hence to mark the world maritime day, which will be celebrated on November 9, let us play a role in conserving the environment from destruction and pollution for us to enjoy healthy, cleaner earth in a prosperous life for years to come.


Blogger's Note :

KUDOS to these Imams for pointing us to the right direction in our endeavor to help save Mother Earth. I hope they will go a step further and be aware that
adopting a plant-based diet is the most effective and fastest way to go about achieving our objective.

May God bless those of us who still love Planet Earth enough to care for her well-being.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

搞环保 ~ 其实蛮简单且充满乐趣,试试看 !(3)

再读一下这篇吧 :

第三篇 : 甲烷排放对全球暖化有更大的影响

资料来源 ~ 农业信息网 :
报告原文Livestock and Climate Change

一项新研究报告的主要作者辛戴尔(Drew Shindell)及其他美国航太总署(NASA US National Aeronautics and Space Administration)科学家表示,甲烷对全球暖化的影响,远超过先前的想像。他们断定在燃烧石化燃料时与二氧化碳同时释出的气溶胶,能抵消二氧化碳导致气候暖化的效应,有降温的效果。于是辛戴尔博士表示,由甲烷释出的热度比先前估算高出20%到40%,依20年数据平均结果,甲烷对暖化的影响比CO2高出百倍。世界观察研究所(World Watch Institute),发表另一份报告之后仅数日,航太总署公佈资料改正先前对蓄牧业產生温室气体的估计。那种计算方式,引用甲烷的热效应为72倍,于是保守地估算,畜牧业造成50%以上的暖化,而非2006年估算的18%。依航太总署的资料,现在此数值应会更高。

美国纽约大学(New York University)物理系兼任教授诺姆莫尔(Noam Mohr),在接受无上师电视台专访时解释更多有关气溶胶如何抵消二氧化碳的热效应。诺姆莫尔教授:「歷史上二氧化碳的所有来源都排放悬浮粒,也会產生这种微粒让地球降温。詹姆士韩森博士(Dr. James Hansen)被誉为全球暖化理论的始祖,他指出这两者几乎互相抵消。因此自古以来二氧化碳的来源几乎没有造成暖化。」

研究人员也指 出,畜牧业是地球上唯一最大的甲烷来源。正如联合国跨政府气候变迁小组(UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)科学家,美国史丹佛大学(Stanford University)特里鲁特博士(Dr. Terry Root)所说,持素是降低甲烷排放最快速的方法。


第四篇 : 最新报告:世界观察研究所:畜牧业及其副产品的温室气体排放至少占51%

报告原文Livestock and Climate Change


世界观察研究所(WWI)在最近的一期《世界观察》杂志(11/12月刊)中刊登的一篇题为《畜牧业和气候变化》的报告中指出畜牧业及其副产品的温室气体排放至少占全球总排放的51%,远远超过粮农组织先前估计的数值18%。 该报告的作者罗伯特•古德兰(Robert Goodland)是一位在世界银行工作23年后退休的权威环境顾问。2008年他因对环保的突出贡献而获得过世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)授予的一级柯立芝勋章。杰夫•安航(Jeff Anhang)是世界银行国际金融公司的环境专家和研究员,为发展中国家提供私营部门的融资和咨询。

报告指出联合国粮农组织在早先的报告《牲畜的巨大阴影:环境问题与选择》中估计每年有75.16亿吨二氧化碳当量的温室气体是由牛、羊、骆驼、马、猪和家禽排放的,占全球总排放的18%。“但我们的分析表明:牲畜和它们的副产品实际上至少排放了325.64亿吨二氧化碳当量的温室气体,占世界总排放的51%”。作者指出:在审视了所有直接和间接的排放后,他们发现有一些排放明显被低估了,而另外一些排放根本就被忽略了,还有一些排放虽然计算了,但却被错误的列入其它部门了。 作者在报告中指出,他们估计的数字仍然是保守的。



年温室气体排放 占世界总
FAO的估计 75.16 11.8
动物的呼吸(被忽视) 87.69 13.7
被忽视的土地使用 >26.72 >4.2
被低估的甲烷 50.47 7.9
其它(数据的更新、修正) >55.60 >8.7
小计 >220.48 >34.5

阿根廷的森林砍伐、养殖鱼、喂养牲畜的鱼等见文字说明 >30.00 >4.7
总计 >325.64 >51.0



2005年英国物理学家Alan Calverd曾估计人为的动物呼吸产生的温室气体占世界总排放的21%,但主要由于将动物呼吸列入排放清单后,基数扩大了,所以所占份额也下降到了 13.7%。由于全球草地的短缺,当前饲养更多牲畜的唯一方法就是砍伐天然森林。通常每公顷的雨林可以贮存至少200吨的碳,将雨林砍伐改造成草地后,则只能存贮8 吨。 甲烷在大气层中的半衰期只有8年,而二氧化碳至少有100年。如果以FAO使用的100年为尺度计算的话,甲烷的温室效应是CO2的25倍,但如果以20年为尺度计算的话,则为72倍。作者认为,考虑到“在20年内甲烷减排的巨大效益,以及如果20年内温室气体的减排没有显著成果,气候系统将会严重破坏”,使用20年为尺度计算更为恰当。IPCC也支持使用20年为尺度来计算甲烷的温室效应。


1. 由于FAO主要的数据来源是2002年的,而现在畜牧业已经有所增长;
2. 修正了一些FAO使用的非完全统计数字;
3. 对FAO所引用的历史数据的修正;
4. 对FAO引用个别地区的数据代表整个世界的数据的修正;



搞环保 ~ 其实蛮简单且充满乐趣,试试看 !(2)

尚未完全明白 ? 看看以下最新的报告和之前联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)的报告吧 :

第一篇 : 畜牧业气体排放,完全低估?

资料来源 - 农业信息网 :


(华盛顿DC讯)一篇刊登在最新一期《世界观察杂誌》,名为〈畜牧业与气候变迁〉的文章中,作者Robert Goodland与Jeff Anhang共同指出,我们完全低估为了肉食畜养动物的生命循环与供应链对环境所造成的衝击;事实上,养殖动物至少排放了全球一半以上人类行为所產生的温室气体。





第二篇 : 粮农组织:牲畜比汽车产生更多温室气体

资料来源 :联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)

2006年11月29日 联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)今天公布报告说,牲畜产生的温室气体比汽车还要多,各国必须采取措施遏止这种趋势。

粮 农组织在这份题为《牲畜的巨大阴影:环境问题与选择》(Livestock’s Long Shadow-Environmental Issues and Options)的报告中说,由于人类对肉类和奶类的需求不断上升,牲畜饲养业快速发展,牲畜产生的温室气体已经超过了汽车。

报 告说,如果用二氧化碳的释放量衡量,牲畜比汽车排放多18%。如果用一氧化二氮(nitrous oxide)衡量,则人类活动(包括饲养牲畜)释放的一氧化二氮65%来自牲畜,而一氧化二氮的“全球变暖潜势”(Global Warming Potential,简称:GWP)是二氧化碳的296倍。




粮 农组织本周在泰国曼谷开会,寻求解决上述问题的办法。可供选择的方案包括:改进饲料从而减少牲畜肠道发酵(enteric fermentation)产生的甲烷、建立生物工厂加强对牲畜粪便的循环利用、提高牲畜饲养和饲料种植的效率、加强牧场合理化管理、利用定价和征税调节 畜牧业、加强植树造林、加强土地和水资源管理,等等。

搞环保 ~ 其实蛮简单且充满乐趣,试试看 !(1)




1)买东西时采用布袋,或某些超市售卖可以循环再用的环保袋,谢绝塑胶袋。(然后算看每天少用了多少个塑胶袋,一个月下来少用了多少个,哇,蛮有成就感 的 !)

2)不用电器时,随手关掉并拔出插头。试试改掉把整间屋的电灯都开着的习惯,需要用到那个角落就开那里的灯即可。有些人习惯把电脑日夜开着, 不但浪费电,对健康也不好。(实行后收到电费单时肯定会很高兴:) )

3)节省用水 – 洗东西时尽量用容器装水来洗,不要开着水喉让水不停流着;洗菜的水可以用来作清洗碗筷,浇花草;洗衣的水可以盛来洗地;洗车时用水桶等等。(在用水方面,马来西亚人算是幸运的,因此也特别不懂珍视水源。地球上有不少地方正缺着水;地球是圆的,每一片土地息息相关,发生在他国的天灾迟早会影响大马,如果此刻尚不珍惜水,保不定什么时候我们也要开始尝到严重缺水的苦果,要惜福哦。)


5)用水果皮制作环保酵素,简单,安全又好用,让家人参与,来一个温馨的家庭活动,其乐融融 !

6)停止或减少吃肉。这是极重要的一点。超量的温室气体已导致气候变迁,引发世界各地天灾连连,而畜牧业是造成温室气体超量的主要原因。根据最新报告,畜牧业的温室气体是全球总排放量的51%, 够恐怖吧?各地政府代表虽然积极参与会议,但往往局限于各自的商业利益和短见,无法达至一致的方案。接踵而来的天灾不断的提醒我们不能再等这些会议的结果了,民间需要自救,因此停止或减少吃肉,是减少畜牧业继续破坏的最快方式。这个方案,还真是老少皆宜呢!算算看,每人每日三餐,祖父祖母,爸爸妈妈,哥哥姐姐弟弟妹妹,包括小小婴儿,每个家庭每天将减少多少肉食品,间接减少多少温室气体 ?

7)尚有许多环保招,可上网浏览, 跟有心者互相交流,参与有趣实用的环保活动等等。也欢迎大家在此分享,共勉之 !

地球是我们这个肉身唯一的家,清理维护这个家是自己的责任嘛;为自己,为年老的父母,为年幼的孩子,为我们所爱的亲朋戚友,均义不容辞呀 !

Monday, November 9, 2009

Update dari pencinta alam

Dah lama saya tak buat posting. Rakan seblogger saya kata kalo saya tak nak lagi, kita hentikan blog ini. Terasa jugak dengar kata dia :)
So ini dia, posting baru saya...

update diri saya: dah mula buat garbage enzyme (enzim sampah). Bapak saya ada buat dulu tapi tak berjaya sangat. My first garbage enzyme saya "reuse", pakai CD plastic holder yg membulat dan tinggi berbentuk silinder tu, sebagai bekas, (tengok contoh gambar bekas CD ni), terbalikkannya, letak gula merah, sisa buah-buahan dan air dalam nisbah, 1 (gula merah) :3 (sisa buah) :10 (air) dan tutup cover dia, balut kelilingnya dengan plastik ("reuse" plastik pakej tisu tandas) utk pastikan ia kedap udara. Memang mudah.

Kalo nak tahu lagi tentang enzim sampah, layari (ini saja yg lebih komprehensif tentangnya dalam bahasa Malaysia):

Cubalah kalo boleh, enzim ini banyak sangat manfaatnya.

Hangat, hangat!!!

Laporan PBB 2006 sebelum ini menyatakan bhw industri penternakan dan daging mengakibatkan 18% pengeluaran gas rumah hijau, lebih drpd semua jenis pengangkutan
di dunia tapi laporan terbaru oleh Goodhand & Anhang drpd World Watch Institute yg ternama dan berprestij mendapati bhw ternakan dan hasil sampingan mrk sebenarnya mengakibatkan 51% drpd jumlah pengeluaran gas rumah hijau dunia!!!

update tentang apa yg hangat di Supreme Master TV: banyak!
1) Al Gore sudah mengaku bahawa diet berasaskan tumbuhan akan membantu kurangkan pemanasan global dan beliau sendiri dah semakin banyak makan makanan vegetarian!!!! :D

2) Persidangan Perubahah Iklim Washington DC yg diadakan baru-baru ini (5 Nov) menonjolkan ramai VIP yang membentangkan pendapat dan laporan mereka tentang kepentingan mengamalkan diet berasaskan tumbuhan utk menangani masalah pemanasan global sebelum ia sampai ke tahap tak boleh patah balik, di mana walau apapun yg kita lakukan selepas tahap itu, planet tak akan dapat diselamatkan lagi. Masa tak banyak.

OK ada lagi... akan disambung tak lama lagi :)

Sunday, November 8, 2009

Earthlings 地球上的生靈 每人必看的一部電影 繁體中文字幕

谢谢芯瑀小棧容许我们分享 :

资料来源,请点击观看影片, please link to view the video

Earthlings 地球上的生靈


  製作:尚恩.曼森(Shaun Monson)
  監制:佩西亞.懷特(Persia White)
  旁白:喬昆.費尼克斯(Joaquin Phoenix)
  得獎紀錄:最佳紀錄片獎 Earthlings《地球上的生靈》

  【地球上的生靈】是一套耗時5年搜集證據和拍攝錄影的長篇記錄片,於2003年在美國上映,本片揭露人類文明背後的血腥與自私。內容關於人類如何依靠 動物為生 (如作為寵物、食物、衣物、休閒娛樂、以及科學實驗),但同樣顯示出人類如何不尊重這些所謂"非人類供應者"的生命。影片共分為10段落,主題分別為"寵 物、食物、休閒"。
  EARTHLINGS is a feature length documentary about humanity's absolute dependence on animals (for pets, food, clothing, entertainment, and scientific research) but also illustrates our complete disrespect for these so-called "non-human providers." The film is narrated by Academy Award nominee Joaquin Phoenix (GLADIATOR) and features music by the critically acclaimed platinum artist Moby.

  「如果我能讓世界上每一個人看一部電影的話,我會要他們看《地球上的生靈》」———哲學家與倫理學家彼德‧辛格(Peter Singer)
  「觀看《地球上的生靈》是我所獲得的最佳禮物,我無法相信自己過去竟是如此無知。」 ———女星布萊絲‧達拉斯‧霍華(Bryce Dallas Howard)

  昨晚,我妻子連哄帶騙地讓我看了《地球上的生靈》這個影片。我被我所看到的一切深深地-震驚。那些對人類而言相當美好溫馨的場景背後,如餐廳、皮革、寵物、醫學研究、動物運動等等一切,純粹是並非虛構的地獄啊! 我現在還不清楚自己何去何從,但我明顯感覺到我必須做點什麼,我已經被喚醒。不僅僅是為我的妻兒與家庭,重要的是,作為一個男人,我得為這個地球上別的眾生做點事兒! 我從來沒有想過,一部電影居然會如此有力,會如此深深地觸動我內心的情感,而且它永遠地改變了我的人生!
  我花了一小時一刻鐘才讓我12歲的兒子來看這部電影,看的時候他不停地說我真是討厭,讓他看這個節目。 然後,他申辯說,他不會去割動物的咽喉,而且長大後不會去屠宰廠工作。 最後,他說“我再也不吃肉了”。


(2)環保:畜養肉食動物是地球暖化的主因,占約80%的排碳量 。

Friday, October 30, 2009

This is what they mean ......

Hi all,

Here's a list of terms to take note of with regard to the climate debate that is currently heating up planet earth and its people. Be updated and wise up to viewing the issue in a better perspective.

FACTBOX - Deciphering the jargon in the climate debate

REUTERS - A new bill introduced by Democrats in the U.S. Senate is not the only thing the climate change debate has brought to Washington. Politicians, pundits and lobbyists alike are now speaking a new jargon as they try to tackle global warming.

Here are some terms being thrown around in the climate debate.

GLOBAL WARMING - The gradual rise in the Earth's average temperature thought to be caused by additional heat being trapped in the atmosphere by a buildup of greenhouse gases. Scientists say the the change in climate brought on by global warming could cause flooding from melting ice caps, more severe storms and droughts. The theory is still hotly disputed by some groups, including some Republicans in Congress who don't believe global warming has been proven as a threat.

GREENHOUSE GASES - Chemicals that trap the sun's heat near the Earth like a blanket. These chemicals include methane and carbon dioxide. Supporters of climate change legislation blame carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels for global warming.

CARBON FOOTPRINT - A measure of the impact of human activities on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases they produce, measured in units of carbon dioxide.

CARBON OFFSETS - Paying to make up for carbon emissions. Websites are now dedicated to allowing consumers to pay to have trees planted or contribute to a wind farm to make up for the carbon dioxide emitted when they drive or take a flight. A more formal, albeit unregulated, global voluntary carbon market also exists in which companies can buy verified emissions reductions to reduce their carbon footprint. The recession hurt demand for these offsets, which currently trade between $3 and $11 a tonne, but prices and demand are starting to improve.

CAP AND TRADE - A system that sets limits on harmful emissions, giving allowances to affected industries within these limits, or caps. Companies with emissions below the cap could sell their extra allowances to bigger polluters on a new financial market exchange. The Obama administration and Democrats in Congress support the system, but Republicans argue it would push more manufacturing abroad and raise energy prices.

CARBON PERMITS - Used in a cap and trade system, they bestow on their owner the legal right to emit greenhouse gases. Climate legislation in the Senate has outlined a plan for distributing the permits.

CARBON TAX - A policy that would tax fossil fuels based on their carbon content. It would be used to encourage the use of more clean energy sources. The corporate world has shown some support for this policy tool, but it has made little progress in getting into legislation.

COPENHAGEN - Location of an international summit to be held in December on climate change. The hope is for this United Nations summit to bring about a legally binding agreement on how to reduce the world's carbon emissions. But the United Nations recently lowered expectations for a climate deal at the meeting, saying it was preparing for post-Copenhagen talks.

The United States is pushing to make gains on its own climate legislation before the meeting as U.S. leadership is considered vital to global talks.

KYOTO - Short for Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, which sets binding targets for emissions of greenhouse gases that spur global warming. The United States never ratified the agreement, which called for developed countries to cut emissions by an average of 5.2 percent below what they were in 1990, saying it was unfair to exempt developing countries like China and India. The agreement expires in 2012. The world is looking to talks in Copenhagen to build on this agreement.

CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM - A part of Kyoto that allowed developed countries to invest in projects, or offsets, that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. Its key point is that it allows for emission reductions that would not otherwise have been possible.

(Compiled by Jasmin Melvin in Washington, editing by Alan Elsner)


Tuesday, October 20, 2009


Hi there...

Read about this bit of disturbing report in today's STAR. There is not enough of these 'wake-up' calls for people to sit up, listen and DO SOMETHING ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE!!! We don't know what directions the coming Copenhagen Climate Change Conference will take ... whether or not all the participating countries will come to a unanimous YES to signing the climate deal. Whatever, you and I can start to make a difference NOW! Changing our lifestyles, our diets, living habits and attitudes can and will help in saving ourselves and our animal co-inhabitants from the point of no return.... STAND UP AND BE COUNTED! Heal the World!

Date : 20th Oct, 2009
Author: Charles J Hanley

Caribou herds are among the victims of dramatic changes in the Arctic due to climate change.

ON THE endlessly rolling and tussocky terrain of Yukon Territory, north-west Canada, where man has hunted caribou since the Stone Age, the vast antlered herds are fast growing thin. And it’s not just here.

Across the tundra 1,500km to the east, Canada’s Beverly herd, numbering more than 200,000 a decade ago, can barely be found today. Halfway around the world in Siberia, the biggest aggregation of these migratory animals, of the dun-coloured herds whose sweep across the Arctic’s white canvas is one of nature’s matchless wonders, has shrunk by hundreds of thousands in a few short years.

From wildlife spectacle to wildlife mystery, the decline of the caribou – called reindeer in the Eurasian Arctic – has biologists searching for clues, and finding them. They believe the insidious impact of climate change, its tipping of natural balances and disruption of feeding habits, is decimating a species that has long numbered in the millions and supported human life in Earth’s most inhuman climate.

Many herds have lost more than half their number from the maximums of recent decades, a global survey finds. They “hover on the precipice of a major decline,” it says.

The “people of the caribou,” the native Gwich’in of the Yukon and Alaska, were among the first to sense trouble, in the late 1990s, as their Porcupine herd dwindled. From 178,000 in 1989, the herd – named for the river crossing its range – is now estimated to number 100,000.

“They used to come through by the hundreds,” James Firth of the Gwich’in Renewable Resources Board said.

Off toward distant horizons on a summer afternoon, only small groups of a dozen or fewer migrating caribou could be seen grazing southwards across the spongy landscape, green with a layer of grasses, mosses and lichen over the Arctic permafrost. “I’ve never seen it like this before,” Firth said of the sparse numbers.

More than 50 identifiable caribou herds migrate over huge wilderness tracts in a wide band circling the top of the world. They head north in the spring to ancient calving grounds, then back south through summer and fall to winter ranges closer to northern forests.

The Porcupine herd moves over a 250,000sqkm range, calving in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, near Alaska’s north coast, where proposals for oil drilling have long stirred opposition from environmentalists seeking to protect the caribou.

The global survey by the University of Alberta published in June in the peer-reviewed journal Global Change Biology, has deepened concerns about the caribou’s future. Drawing on scores of other studies, government databases, wildlife management boards and other sources, the biologists found that 34 of 43 herds being monitored worldwide are in decline. The average falloff in numbers was 57% from earlier maximums, they said.

Siberia’s Taimyr herd has declined from one million in 2000 to an estimated 750,000, as reported in the 2008 Arctic Report Card of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Taimyr is the world’s largest herd, but Canada and Alaska have more caribou, and the Alberta study reported that 22 of 34 North American herds are shrinking. Data were insufficient to make a judgment on seven others.

Liv Solveig Vors, the June report’s lead author, summarised what is believed behind the caribou crash: “Climate change is changing the way they’re interacting with their food, directly and indirectly.” Global warming has boosted temperatures in the Arctic twice as much as elsewhere, and Canadian researchers say the natural balance is suffering:

> Unusual freezing rains in autumn are locking lichen, the caribou’s winter forage, under impenetrable ice sheets. This was the documented cause in the late 1990s of the near-extinction of the 50,000-strong Peary caribou subspecies on Canada’s High Arctic islands.

> Mosquitoes, flies and insect parasites have always tormented and weakened caribou, but warmer temperatures have aggravated this summertime problem, driving the animals on crazed, debilitating runs to escape, and keeping them from foraging and fattening up for winter.

> The springtime Arctic “green-up” is occurring two weeks or more earlier. The great caribou migrations evolved over ages to catch the shrubs on the calving grounds at their freshest and most nutritious. But pregnant, migrating cows may now be arriving too late.

Vors said caribou are unlikely to adjust. “Evolutionary changes tend to take place over longer time scales than the time scale of climate change at the moment,” she said.

Caribou herds have gone through boom-and-bust cycles historically, but were never known to decline so uniformly worldwide.

In neighbouring North-west Territories, the territorial government last month reported results of its aerial survey of the Bathurst herd: its population has dropped to about 32,000, from 128,000 in 2006.

“The numbers are not getting better. There’s no good news, no indication of recovery,” said J. Michael Miltenberger, the environment and natural resources minister of Yukon. He said “there’s a huge issue” with the Beverly herd, which numbered 276,000 in 1994, ranging over the Canadian tundra 1,500km due north of north Dakota. “We’ve been flying north to south, east to west,” Miltenberger said. “By our count, with the Beverly herd, they’ve all but disappeared.”

Climate change is piling problem upon problem on the caribou, he said, including bogging them down in thawing permafrost and lengthening the wildfire season, burning up their food.

“The cumulative impact is bringing enormous pressure on the caribou,” he said.

And that puts pressure on Canada’s “first nations,” who for at least 8,000 years have relied on the harvest of caribou meat for the winter larder, have settled along migration routes, have built their material culture around the animal – using skin, bones and sinews for clothing, shelter, tools, thread, even their drums.

Here in the timeless, silent beauty of Gwich’in country, his people may face “hard decisions,” Firth acknowledged, perhaps to limit their hunt to ease the pressure. The Yukon government recently restricted hunting to bulls, to spare reproducing cows. But even more may be at stake. On a summer day above the Arctic Circle, binoculars found a group of caribou being stalked by a hungry grizzly bear, a needy predator and another link in an intricate, interdependent natural web that may be unravelling, year by year and degree by degree, on the tundra. – AP

Monday, October 19, 2009



President Obama delivered a speech to the United Nations today as 100 world leaders gathered for the highest-level summit yet on climate change. Obama said the United States is "determined to act" as the "threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing."

Here is the text of Obama's speech as prepared for delivery.
Good morning. I want to thank the Secretary-General for organizing this summit, and all the leaders who are participating. That so many of us are here today is a recognition that the threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing. Our generation's response to this challenge will be judged by history, for if we fail to meet it -- boldly, swiftly, and together -- we risk consigning future generations to an irreversible catastrophe.

No nation, however large or small, wealthy or poor, can escape the impact of climate change. Rising sea levels threaten every coastline. More powerful storms and floods threaten every continent. More frequent drought and crop failures breed hunger and conflict in places where hunger and conflict already thrive. On shrinking islands, families are already being forced to flee their homes as climate refugees.

The security and stability of each nation and all peoples -- our prosperity, our health, our safety -- are in jeopardy. And the time we have to reverse this tide is running out.

And yet, we can reverse it. John F. Kennedy once observed that "Our problems are man-made, therefore they may be solved by man." It is true that for too many years, mankind has been slow to respond to or even recognize the magnitude of the climate threat. It is true of my own country as well. We recognize that. But this is a new day. It is a new era. And I am proud to say that the United States has done more to promote clean energy and reduce carbon pollution in the last eight months than at any other time in our history.

We're making our government's largest ever investment in renewable energy -- an investment aimed at doubling the generating capacity from wind and other renewable resources in three years. Across America, entrepreneurs are constructing wind turbines and solar panels and batteries for hybrid cars with the help of loan guarantees and tax credits -- projects that are creating new jobs and new industries. We're investing billions to cut energy waste in our homes, buildings, and appliances -- helping American families save money on energy bills in the process. We've proposed the very first national policy aimed at both increasing fuel economy and reducing greenhouse gas pollution for all new cars and trucks -- a standard that will also save consumers money and our nation oil. We're moving forward with our nation's first offshore wind energy projects. We're investing billions to capture carbon pollution so that we can clean up our coal plants. Just this week, we announced that for the first time ever, we'll begin tracking how much greenhouse gas pollution is being emitted throughout the country. Later this week, I will work with my colleagues at the G20 to phase out fossil fuel subsidies so that we can better address our climate challenge. And already, we know that the recent drop in overall U.S. emissions is due in part to steps that promote greater efficiency and greater use of renewable energy.

Most importantly, the House of Representatives passed an energy and climate bill in June that would finally make clean energy the profitable kind of energy for American businesses and dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One committee has already acted on this bill in the Senate and I look forward to engaging with others as we move forward.

Because no one nation can meet this challenge alone, the United States has also engaged more allies and partners in finding a solution than ever before. In April, we convened the first of what have now been six meetings of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate here in the United States. In Trinidad, I proposed an Energy and Climate Partnership for the Americas. We've worked through the World Bank to promote renewable energy projects and technologies in the developing world. And we have put climate at the top of our diplomatic agenda when it comes to our relationships with countries from China to Brazil; India to Mexico; Africa to Europe.
Taken together, these steps represent an historic recognition on behalf of the American people and their government. We understand the gravity of the climate threat.

We are determined to act. And we will meet our responsibility to future generations.
But though many of our nations have taken bold actions and share in this determination, we did not come here today to celebrate progress. We came because there is so much more progress to be made. We came because there is so much more work to be done.

It is work that will not be easy. As we head towards Copenhagen, there should be no illusions that the hardest part of our journey is in front of us. We seek sweeping but necessary change in the midst of a global recession, where every nation's most immediate priority is reviving their economy and putting their people back to work. And so all of us will face doubts and difficulties in our own capitals as we try to reach a lasting solution to the climate challenge.

But difficulty is no excuse for complacency. Unease is no excuse for inaction. And we must not allow the perfect to become the enemy of progress. Each of us must do what we can when we can to grow our economies without endangering our planet -- and we must all do it together. We must seize the opportunity to make Copenhagen a significant step forward in the global fight against climate change.

We also cannot allow the old divisions that have characterized the climate debate for so many years to block our progress. Yes, the developed nations that caused much of the damage to our climate over the last century still have a responsibility to lead. And we will continue to do so by investing in renewable energy, promoting greater efficiency, and slashing our emissions to reach the targets we set for 2020 and our long-term goal for 2050.

But those rapidly-growing developing nations that will produce nearly all the growth in global carbon emissions in the decades ahead must do their part as well. Some of these nations have What we are seeking, after all, is not simply an agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. We seek an agreement that will allow all nations to grow and raise living standards without endangering the planet. By developing and disseminating clean technology and sharing our know-how, we can help developing nations leap-frog dirty energy technologies and reduce dangerous emissions.

As we meet here today, the good news is that after too many years of inaction and denial, there is finally widespread recognition of the urgency of the challenge before us. We know what needs to be done. We know that our planet's future depends on a global commitment to permanently reduce greenhouse gas pollution. We know that if we put the right rules and incentives in place, we will unleash the creative power of our best scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to build a better world. And so many nations have already taken the first steps on the journey towards that goal.

But the journey is long. The journey is hard. And we don't have much time left to make it. It is a journey that will require each of us to persevere through setback, and fight for every inch of progress, even when it comes in fits and starts. So let us begin. For if we are flexible and pragmatic; if we can resolve to work tirelessly in common effort, then we will achieve our common purpose: a world that is safer, cleaner, and healthier than the one we found; and a future that is worthy of our children. Thank you.